The vast majority of France's territory and population is situated in Western Europe and is called Metropolitan France, to distinguish it from the country's various overseas polities. Antiquity (6th century BC–5th century AD), High and Late Middle Ages (10th–15th century), UNESCO World Heritage Sites and protected areas, For information about regional languages see. "90.07.06: The Aerospace Industry: Its History and How it Affects the U.S. Economy", "La France demeure un fournisseur d'armes de premier plan", The List: Best and Worst Countries for Cybersecurity, "Analysis: Low French borrowing costs risk negative reappraisal", France issues first 10-year bond at negative interest rate, Top 10 Countries with Largest Gold Reserves, The attractiveness of world-class business districts: Paris La Défense vs. its global competitors, "Tourism industry sub-sectors: COUNTRY REPORT – FRANCE". Elle a une grande bouche 16. French is the second most studied foreign language in the world after English,[302] and is a lingua franca in some regions, notably in Africa. Nonetheless, it does recognize religious associations. French artists developed the rococo style in the 18th century, as a more intimate imitation of old baroque style, the works of the court-endorsed artists Antoine Watteau, François Boucher and Jean-Honoré Fragonard being the most representative in the country. Les Contemplations and La Légende des siècles are considered as "poetic masterpieces",[370] Hugo's verse having been compared to that of Shakespeare, Dante and Homer. [209] Extensive tracts of fertile land, the application of modern technology, and EU subsidies have combined to make France the leading agricultural producer and exporter in Europe[210] (representing 20% of the EU's agricultural production)[211] and the world's third biggest exporter of agricultural products. NEW!! [139] Laws prohibiting discriminatory speech in the press are as old as 1881. Rationalist philosophers such as Victor Cousin and Auguste Comte, who called for a new social doctrine, were opposed by reactionary thinkers such as Joseph de Maistre, Louis de Bonald and Félicité Robert de Lamennais, who blamed the rationalist rejection of traditional order. It is estimated that between 300 million[303] and 500 million[304] people worldwide can speak French, either as a mother tongue or a second language. [462] Paris was the first home of the International Olympic Committee, before it moved to Lausanne. Agriculture is an important sector of France's economy: 3.8% of the active population is employed in agriculture, whereas the total agri-food industry made up 4.2% of French GDP in 2005. [105][106], Like all European Union state members, France agreed to cut carbon emissions by at least 20% of 1990 levels by the year 2020,[107] compared to the United States plan to reduce emissions by 4% of 1990 levels. Simultaneously, Celtic Britons, fleeing the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain, settled the western part of Armorica. After the catastrophic Russian campaign, and the ensuing uprising of European monarchies against his rule, Napoleon was defeated and the Bourbon monarchy restored. It is noted for having a strong film industry, due in part to protections afforded by the Government of France. [123] As of 2019[update] there are 54 PNRs in France.[124]. Other authors are known, for example Chrétien de Troyes and Duke William IX of Aquitaine, who wrote in Occitan. The second half of the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars with Catholics expelling Protestant (Huguenots), which severely weakened the country. [39] In 312, Emperor Constantin I converted to Christianity. France retains strong political and economic influence in its former African colonies (Françafrique)[165] and has supplied economic aid and troops for peacekeeping missions in Ivory Coast and Chad. When acting as general purpose police force, the Gendarmerie encompasses the counter terrorist units of the Parachute Intervention Squadron of the National Gendarmerie (Escadron Parachutiste d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale), the National Gendarmerie Intervention Group (Groupe d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale), the Search Sections of the National Gendarmerie (Sections de Recherche de la Gendarmerie Nationale), responsible for criminal enquiries, and the Mobile Brigades of the National Gendarmerie (Brigades mobiles de la Gendarmerie Nationale, or in short Gendarmerie mobile) which have the task to maintain public order. Site édité par NextInteractive. In its 2000 assessment of world health care systems, the World Health Organization found that France provided the "close to best overall health care" in the world. In addition to the submarine fleet, it is estimated that France has about 60 ASMP medium-range air-to-ground missiles with nuclear warheads,[174] of which around 50 are deployed by the Air and Space Force using the Mirage 2000N long-range nuclear strike aircraft, while around 10 are deployed by the French Navy's Super Étendard Modernisé (SEM) attack aircraft, which operate from the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle. Under Napoleon III, a new wave of urbanism and architecture was given birth; extravagant buildings such as the neo-baroque Palais Garnier were built. [316][317] In 2011, France spent 11.6% of GDP on health care, or US$4,086 per capita,[318] a figure much higher than the average spent by countries in Europe but less than in the United States. LA NOTION DE COMPÉTENCE : UN MODÈLE POUR DÉCRIRE, ÉVALUER ET DÉVELOPPER LES COMPÉTENCES J.-C. Coulet P.U.F. [403], Until recently, France had for centuries been the cultural center of the world,[298] although its dominant position has been surpassed by the United States. Language School. It also saw a long set of wars, known as the Italian Wars, between France and the House of Habsburg. Medieval philosophy was dominated by Scholasticism until the emergence of Humanism in the Renaissance. By the end of his reign, France had emerged as the most powerful state in Europe. Today, Paris, along with London, Milan, and New York City, is considered one of the world's fashion capitals, and the city is home or headquarters to many of the premier fashion houses. [206] According to the same source, Société Générale and Groupe BPCE were in 2020 the world's 17th and 19th largest banks, respectively. Six sentences are … Clovis I was the first Germanic conqueror after the fall of the Roman Empire to convert to Catholic Christianity, rather than Arianism; thus France was given the title "Eldest daughter of the Church" (French: La fille aînée de l'Église) by the papacy,[43] and French kings would be called "the Most Christian Kings of France" (Rex Christianissimus). The Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) has been ranked by the Nature Index 2020 as the fourth institution with highest share of articles published in scientific journals in the world. According to the French Institute, this increase resulting from the financial crisis that hit several European countries in that period, has pushed up the number of Europeans installed in France. Seventh in Nation Brands IndexSM", "World Service Global Poll: Negative views of Russia on the rise", "Why France is best place to live in world", Women Leaders Index Gender Equality Case Study: France. The French government also succeeded in maintaining a cultural exception to defend audiovisual products made in the country. [204] Euronext Paris, the French branch of the NYSE Euronext group is Europe's 2nd largest stock exchange market, behind the London Stock Exchange. France, including its overseas territories, has the most time zones of any country, with a total of twelve. France has signed and ratified the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)[172] and acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Comment décrire quelqu'un en français ? The new car market is dominated by domestic brands such as Renault (27% of cars sold in France in 2003), Peugeot (20.1%) and Citroën (13.5%). Including metropolitan France, the total area of land under French sovereignty almost reached 13 million square kilometers in the 1920s and 1930s, 8.6% of the world's land. In 843, under the Treaty of Verdun, the empire was divided between Louis' three sons, with East Francia going to Louis the German, Middle Francia to Lothair I, and West Francia to Charles the Bald. The Albigensian Crusade was launched in 1209 to eliminate the heretical Cathars in the southwestern area of modern-day France. [294] Two of the most famous French artists of the time of Baroque era, Nicolas Poussin and Claude Lorrain, lived in Italy. The most prestigious institutions are the state-owned Paris National Opera (with its two sites Palais Garnier and Opéra Bastille), the Opéra National de Lyon, the Théâtre du Châtelet in Paris, the Théâtre du Capitole in Toulouse and the Grand Théâtre de Bordeaux. The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the OECD, ranked France's education as about the OECD average in 2015. France retains its centuries-long status as a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. [465] The football team is among the most successful in the world, with two FIFA World Cup victories in 1998 and 2018,[466] one FIFA World Cup second place in 2006,[467] and two UEFA European Championships in 1984[468] and 2000. [405] Moreover, this decision was confirmed in a voting in the UNESCO in 2005: the principle of "cultural exception" won an overwhelming victory with 198 countries voting for it and only 2 countries, the United States and Israel, voting against.[406]. This fueled much discontent in parts of France, which would contribute to the civil war breaking out some years later. [108] As of 2009[update], French carbon dioxide emissions per capita were lower than that of China's. Il porte la frange 14. The counter-revolution, begun in March 1793 in the Vendée, by July had spread to Brittany, Normandy, Bordeaux, Marseilles, Toulon, and Lyon. The pronunciation with /ɑː/ is mostly confined to accents with the trap-bath split such as Received Pronunciation, though it can be also heard in some other dialects such as Cardiff English, in which /frɑːns/ is in free variation with /fræns/.[24][25]. In 2005 the national service Télévision Numérique Terrestre introduced digital television all over the territory, allowing the creation of other channels. Journal de la Société nationale d'horticulture de France Item Preview remove-circle Share or Embed This Item. [238] The University of Paris, founded in the mid-12th century, is still one of the most important universities in the Western world. In September 1791, the National Constituent Assembly forced King Louis XVI to accept the French Constitution of 1791, thus turning the French absolute monarchy into a constitutional monarchy. Metropolitan France covers 551,500 square kilometres (212,935 sq mi),[97] the largest among European Union members. J’ai perdu Bobby Qu’est-ce que tu as? In the 1960s, the elitist "Haute couture" came under criticism from France's youth culture. While the Louvre Palace has been for a long time a museum, the Musée d'Orsay was inaugurated in 1986 in the old railway station Gare d'Orsay, in a major reorganisation of national art collections, to gather French paintings from the second part of the 19th century (mainly Impressionism and Fauvism movements). Built during the first French Empire, the Arc de Triomphe and Sainte Marie-Madeleine represent the best example of Empire style architecture.[359]. ", Sylvia Zappi, "French Government Revives Assimilation Policy", in Migration Policy Institute. Related Subjects: (11) French language -- Discourse analysis. It is currently estimated that 40% of the French population is descended at least partially from the different waves of immigration the country has received since the early 20th century;[282] between 1921 and 1935 alone, about 1.1 million net immigrants came to France. Ecole LFMP (Le Français Ma Passion) Sàrl. Basic principles of the rule of law were laid in the Napoleonic Code (which was, in turn, largely based on the royal law codified under Louis XIV). acte avons c'est-à-dire chose classer clôture commun complexe comporte compte considérer constate contenu conversation conversationnelle coordonn é corpus cours crois d'accord dernier descendant deuxième développement dialogue différents … [88] Simultaneously France renounced the assimilation of immigrants, where they were expected to adhere to French traditional values and cultural norms. Summers are hot and wet, while winters are cold and gloomy. The declaration expresses the nation's ideals to this day. Originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or "realm of the Franks". Résumé. It is traditionally derived from the Proto-Germanic word *frankōn, which translates as "javelin" or "lance" (the throwing axe of the Franks was known as the francisca),[23] although these weapons may have been named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around. Décrire un animal 1. [79] In the latter role, Charles de Gaulle managed to keep the country together while taking steps to end the Algerian War. Among current musical events and institutions in France, many are dedicated to classical music and operas. The perceived threat from anglicisation has prompted efforts to safeguard the position of the French language in France. France is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), but under President de Gaulle, it excluded itself from the joint military command to protest the Special Relationship between the United States and Britain and to preserve the independence of French foreign and security policies. • The ice cap climate (EF) is found in all the mountainous regions of France that have a glacier. [175][176] Its industries have produced such equipment as the Rafale fighter, the Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier, the Exocet missile and the Leclerc tank among others. [169], The French Armed Forces (Forces armées françaises) are the military and paramilitary forces of France, under the President of the Republic as supreme commander. Ask & … French roads also handle substantial international traffic, connecting with cities in neighboring Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, Andorra and Monaco. [218], With more than 10 millions tourists a year, the French Riviera (French: Côte d'Azur), in Southeast France, is the second leading tourist destination in the country, after the Paris region. How to conduct European clinical trials from the Paris Region ? Napoleon III was unseated following defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 and his regime was replaced by the Third Republic. The 17th century was the period when French painting became prominent and individualised itself through classicism. [182] France introduced the common European currency, the Euro in 2002. Of the total of 229,000 foreigners who were in France in 2012, nearly 8% were Portuguese, 5% British, 5% Spanish, 4% Italians, 4% Germans, 3% Romanians, and 3% Belgians.[294]. Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union (EU) members and by EU legislation. [116] France had a 2018 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 4.52/10, ranking it 123rd globally out of 172 countries. [41] Teutonic tribes invaded the region from present-day Germany, the Visigoths settling in the southwest, the Burgundians along the Rhine River Valley, and the Franks (from whom the French take their name) in the north.[42]. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. Opération Chammal, France's military efforts to contain ISIS, killed over 1,000 ISIS troops between 2014 and 2015.[95][96]. [331] Nevertheless, rates of childhood obesity are slowing in France, while continuing to grow in other countries. In 1852, the president of the French Republic, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, Napoleon I's nephew, was proclaimed emperor of the Second Empire, as Napoleon III. Summers are pleasantly warm and wet, while winters are cool and damp. The second is offered in high schools (lycée) and finishes in national exams leading to a baccalaureate (baccalauréat, available in professional, technical or general flavors) or certificate of professional competence (certificat d'aptitude professionelle). Telle est la question posée par Alain Finkielkraut à la journaliste Florence Aubenas, dont le livre "En France" est une collection de reportages partout dans le pays. According to the 2007 Adult Education survey, part of a project by the European Union and carried in France by the INSEE and based on a sample of 15,350 persons, French was the native language of 87.2% of the total population, or roughly 55.81 million people, followed by Arabic (3.6%, 2.3 million), Portuguese (1.5%, 960,000), Spanish (1.2%, 770,000) and Italian (1.0%, 640,000). Conversely, religious organisations are expected to refrain from intervening in policy-making. From the 11th century, the House of Plantagenet, the rulers of the County of Anjou, succeeded in establishing its dominion over the surrounding provinces of Maine and Touraine, then progressively built an "empire" that spanned from England to the Pyrenees and covering half of modern France. Since 2016 France is mainly divided into 18 administrative regions: 13 regions in metropolitan France (including the territorial collectivity of Corsica),[125] and five located overseas. [87] During the 1970s France faced economic crisis and allowed new immigrants (mostly from the Maghreb)[87] to permanently settle in France with their families and to acquire French citizenship. France possesses a wide variety of landscapes, from coastal plains in the north and west to mountain ranges of the Alps in the southeast, the Massif Central in the south central and Pyrenees in the southwest. The Global Divide on Homosexuality- Greater Acceptance in More Secular and Affluent Countries, France marks five-year anniversary of same-sex marriage, Paris climate change agreement: the world's greatest diplomatic success, "La France du beurre et celle de l'huile d'olive maintiennent leurs positions", "Michelin 3 Star Restaurants around the world", "Tour De France 2019: Everything you need to know", "All you need to know about sport in France", France wins right to host the 2007 rugby world cup, "Paris 1900 Summer Olympics. Over time, some of the king's vassals would grow so powerful that they often posed a threat to the king. [19] Modern France is still named today Francia in Italian and Spanish, while Frankreich in German, Frankrijk in Dutch and Frankrike in Swedish all mean "Land/realm of the Franks". Similar Items. Thus was established feudalism in France. Combien il mesure? France has a special military corps, the French Foreign Legion, founded in 1830, which consists of foreign nationals from over 140 countries who are willing to serve in the French Armed Forces and become French citizens after the end of their service period. [46] His descendants—the Capetians, the House of Valois and the House of Bourbon—progressively unified the country through wars and dynastic inheritance into the Kingdom of France, which was fully declared in 1190 by Philip II of France (Philippe Auguste). France has several overseas regions across the world, which are organized as follows: France has land borders with Brazil and Suriname via French Guiana and with the Kingdom of the Netherlands through the French portion of Saint Martin.